March 04, 2017

Containerization: A Timeline

Technologies that populate the containerization timeline include:

  • chroot (1979)
    • UNIX system call for changing the root directory of a process to a new location in the filesystem which is only visible to a given process
  • FreeBSD Jails (2000)
    • compartmentalize of files and its resources
  • Virtuozzo (2001)
  • Linux Vserver (2001)
  • Oracle Solaris Containers (2004)
  • Open VZ (Open Virtuzzo) (2005)
  • Process Containers (2006)
  • Google Control Groups (2007)
  • HP-UX Containers (2007)
    • used to create an isolated operating environment within a single instance of the HP-UX 11i v3 operating system
  • AIX WPARs - Workload Partition (2007)
    • software-based virtualization that allows multiple AIX environments to run on a single system. WPARs provide isolation from other processes and WPARs.
  • LXC - LinuX Containers (2008)
  • Cloud Foundry Warden (2011)
  • Google LMCTFY (2013) - replacement for LXC (based on cgroups, does not use namespaces)
  • Docker (2013)
  • Rocket/rkt (2014)
    • "what Docker was supposed to be before it got so big" - CoreOS
    • an alternative to the Docker runtime
    • is designed to be secure, composable, and standards-based
  • Windows Containers (2016)
  • Note: HP-UX hard partition (nPARs - establish boundaries that completely protect one virtual machine from another) and virtual partition (vPAR - software only partition, which runs its own instance of HP-UX). They are not considered to be containers as they run independent kernels.

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