January 22, 2012

1.4.5 TLS

TLS

TLS (Transport Layer Security) and SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) are protocols that provide data encryption and authentication between applications in scenarios where that data is being sent across an insecure network, such as checking your email. The terms SSL and TLS are often used interchangeably or in conjunction with each other (TLS/SSL), but one is in fact the predecessor of the other — SSL 3.0 served as the basis for TLS 1.0 which, as a result, is sometimes referred to as SSL 3.1.

The TLS protocol allows client/server applications to communicate across a network in a way designed to prevent eavesdropping and tampering.

TLS connections first begin with an insecure “hello” to the server and only switch to secured communications after the handshake between the client and the server is successful. If the TLS handshake fails for any reason, the connection is never created.

The main benefit in opting for TLS over SSL is that TLS was incepted as an open-community standard, meaning TLS is more extensible and will likely be more widely supported in the future with other Internet standards. TLS is even backwards compatible, possessing the ability to “scale down” to SSL if necessary to support secure client-side connections that only understand SSL.

Another more immediate benefit, however, is that TLS allows both secure and insecure connections over the same port, whereas SSL requires a designated secure-only port.

TLS and SSL encrypt the segments of network connections above the Transport Layer, using asymmetric cryptography for key exchange, symmetric encryption for privacy, and message authentication codes for message integrity.

TLS is an IETF standards track protocol, last updated in RFC 5246, and is based on the earlier SSL specifications developed by Netscape Communications.

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